In order to expedite the discovery of genes coding for either drug targets or antibiotic resistance, we have developed a functional genomic strategy termed Plas-Seq. This technique involves coupling a multicopy suppressor library to next-generation sequencing. We generated an Escherichia coli plasmid genomic library that was transformed into E. coli. These transformants were selected step by step using 0.25× to 2× minimum inhibitory concentrations for ceftriaxone, gentamicin, levofloxacin, tetracycline or trimethoprim. Plasmids were isolated at each selection step and subjected to Illumina sequencing. By searching for genomic loci whose sequencing coverage increased with antibiotic pressure we were able to detect 48 different genomic loci that were enriched by at least one antibiotic. Fifteen of these loci were studied functionally, and we showed that 13 can decrease the susceptibility of E. coli to antibiotics when overexpressed. These genes coded for drug targets, transcription factors, membrane proteins and resistance factors. The technique of Plas-Seq is expediting the discovery of genes associated with the mode of action or resistance to antibiotics and led to the isolation of a novel gene influencing drug susceptibility. It has the potential for being applied to novel molecules and to other microbial species.